According to eminent secularist historians, Mughals have been portrayed as patrons of art and culure. Let us do a reality check.
Zahiru'd-Din Muahmmed Babur(CE 1526-1530)
Source: Babur NamaPlace:Chanderi (Madhya Pradesh)
In AH 934 (CE 1528) I attacked Chanderi and by the grace of Allah captured it in a few hours...We got the infidels slaughtered and the place which had been daru'l - harb for years was made into a daru'l-islam.
Babur's poem on killing Hindus
For the sake of Islam I became a wanderer;I battled infidels and Hindus.I determined to become a martyr.Thank God I became a Ghazi(killer of non-Muslims)
Quoted in Dr. Harsh Narain's article:Rama-Janma Bhumi Muslim testimony Indian Express Feb,26,1990 Place:Uttar Pradesh
Since the establishment of Zahiru'd-Din Ghazi's rule ...officers and religious leaders spread Islam vigorously destroying Hindu faith. We cleared of the filth of Hinduism from Faizabad and Avadh.
Guru Nanak on Babur's atrocities: Source:Rag Asa Guru Nanak Dev witnessed first hand the atrocities Babur committed on Hindus and recorded them in his poems. He says:
Having attacked Khuraasaan, Babar terrified Hindustan. The Creator Himself does not take the blame, but has sent the Mugal as the messenger of death. There was so much slaughter that the people screamed. Didn't You feel compassion, Lord? pg (360)
On the condition of Hindu women in Babur's monster rule:
Those heads adorned with braided hair, with their parts painted with vermillion - those heads were shaved with scissors, and their throats were choked with dust.They lived in palatial mansions, but now, they cannot even sit near the palaces.... ropes were put around their necks, and their strings of pearls were broken. Their wealth and youthful beauty, which gave them so much pleasure, have now become their enemies. The order was given to the soldiers, who dishonored them, and carried them away. If it is pleasing to God's Will, He bestows greatness; if is pleases His Will, He bestows punishment pg(417-18)
On the nature of Mughal rule under Babur:
First, the tree puts down its roots, and then it spreads out its shade above. The kings are tigers, and their officials are dogs; they go out and awaken the sleeping people to harass them. The public servants inflict wounds with their nails. The dogs lick up the blood that is spilled. Source:Rag Malar, (pg.1288)
Though in the beginning of his rule Jahangir followed the humanistic rule of his father Akbar the great -the policy of sulehkul even issued a proclamation against the forcible conversion of Hindus to Islam, he revoked Akbar's orders that those who have been forcibly converted from Islam could return to Hinduism. He severely punished Kaukab, Sharif and Abdul Latif for showing inclination to Hinduism. He also prohibited the free inter-marriage customs between Hindus and Muslims in Kashmir. Hindus marrying Muslim girls and those who had already married were given a choice between Islam and death. Many were killed.
Jahangir's torture of Guru Arjun Dev ji: Guru was imprisoned at Lahore fort. He was chained to a post in an open place exposed to the sun from morning to evening in the summer months of May to June. Below his feet a heap of sand was put which burnt like a furnace. Boiling water was poured on his naked body at intervals. His body was covered with blisters all over. In this agony Guru used to utter.
Tera Kiya Metha lage, naam padarath Nanak mange(whatever you ordain appears sweet. I supplicate for the gift of name)
The Guru was ordercd to be executed. In addition a fine of Rupees two lakhs was imposed on him. Some historians say that, as a measure of clemency at the intervention of Mian Mir, this fine was imposed in lieu of the sentence of death. The Sikhs offered to pay the fine themselves but the Guru forbade them to do so. He replied to the Emperor,
"Whatever money I have is for the poor, the friendless and the stranger. If thou ask for money thou mayest take what I have; but if thou ask for it by way of fine, I shall not give thee even a Kaurz (penny)." The Guru accepted death by torture
In 1632 Shah jahan ordered that all Hindu temples recently erected or in the course of construction should be razed to the ground. In Benares alone seventy six temples were destroyed. Christian churches at Agra and Lahore were demolished. In a manner befitting the Prophet he had ten thousand inhabitants executed by being "blown up with powder, drowned in water or burnt by fire". Four thousand were taken captive to Agra where they were tortured to try to convert them to Islam. Only a few apostacised, the remainder were trampled to death by elephants, except for the younger women who went to harems.
Shahjahan put enormous eonomic pressure on Hindus particularly peasents to become Muslims. The criminals too were forced to become Muslims.
Source: Badshah Nama, Qazinivi & Badshah Nama , Lahori
When Shuja was appointed as governor of Kabul he carried on a ruthless war in the Hindu territory beyond Indus...The sword of Islam yielded a rich crop of converts....Most of the women (to save their honour) burnt themselves to death. Those captured were distributed among Muslim Mansabdars.
Source: Manucci, Storia do Mogor vol-II p.451 & Travels of Frey Sebastian Manrique
Under Shahjahan peasents were compelled to sell their women and children to meet their revenue requirements....The peasents were carried off to various Markets and fairs to be sold with their poor unhappy wives carrying their small children crying and lamenting. According to Qaznivi Shahjagan had decreed they should be sold to Muslim lords.
Aurangzeb considered himself "The Scourge Of The Kafirs" (non-believers) and closed Hindu schools and libraries. In his lifetime he destroyed more than 10,000 Hindu, Buddhist and Jam temples and often erected mosques in their stead.3 In 1669 in Agra he had hacked off the limbs of the recalcitrant Hindu King Gokla and in 1672 several thousand revolting Hindus were slaughtered in Mewat.
· Issued general order to destroy all centers of Hindu learnings including Varnasi and destroyed the temple at Mathura and renamed it as Islamabad
· In Khandela (rajastan) he killed 300 Hindus in one day for they resisted the destruction of their temple.
· In Udaipur all Hindus of the town were killed as they vowed to defend the temple of Udaipur from destruction.
· 172 temples were destroyed in Udaipur.
· 66 temples were pulled down in Amber. All Hindu clerks were dismissed from the office of the Imperial empire.
· In Pandhpur , Maharashtra, the Emperor ordered and executed the destruction of temple and butchering of cows within the temple.
Aurangazeb also tortured to death the disciples of Guru Tegh bahadur before his death and also killed Guru. Guru Tegh Bahadur - the pride of Hindustan was martyred for he spoke for the persecuted Hindus of Hindustan. Aurangazeb also killed Guru Gobind singh's two children aged less than ten by walling them alive for not accepting the choice of Islam. In Punjab Muslim governors killed hundreds of Sikh children and made Sikh women eat the flesh of their own killed children. Banda Bahadur another great Sikh martyr before being tortured to death was also made to eat the flesh of his own children killed before his eyes. Any Muslim bringing the head of a dead Sikh was also awarded money.
Guru Tegh Bahadur's Supreme sacrifice for Kashmiri Hindus
In 1674 CE Aurangzeb ordered that the Hindus of J&K be converted to Islam by force from the Kashmir side. Harassed beyond any human measure by Sher Afgan Khan, the Governor of Kashmir, the prominent Brahmins of Kashmir led by Pandit Kirpa Ram (who later became Sanskrit tutor of Guru Govind Singh, appeared before the Guru at Anandpur on the 25th May, 1675 CE, and appealed for protection. In His infinite compassion Guru tegh Bahadur assured them total protection. Guru proclaimed His resolve to protect the Dharma of Bharath,
"Go and tell the Governor that Guru Tegh Bahadur is our leader. If you convert him to Islam, we shall become Muslims of our own accord."
On getting this message, Aurangzeb ordered the arrest of the Guru. For courting arrest, the Guru started towards Agra from Anandpur on the 11th July, 1675 CE At Agra, when the soldiers came to arrest the Guru.
Aurangazeb tortured Guru's disciples before his own eyes to break Guru's resolve.The qazis asked Bhai Mati Dass a disciple of Guru ,
"Embrace Islam and enjoy the pleasures provided by the goveInment. Moreover when you die as a Muslim, you will go to heaven where there will be streams of milk, many kinds of wine to drink and beautiful women to enjoy. If you do not embrace Islam, your body will be sawn into two."
Bhai Mati Dass replied,
"I can sacrifice hundreds of such heavens for Dharma. I don't need women nor wine. I see all the happiness in the path of Dharma."
After his refusal, the qazis asked him his last wish, to which he replied,
'When I am being cut with the saw, let my face be towards my mentor so that I may behold my Guru till my last breath and he may keep on seeing me so that he may be convinced how happily I reach my last destination.'
By the order of the qazis, the executioners sawed Bhai Mati Dass into two by axe on the 8th November, 1675 CE, in Chandani Chowk, Delhi.
On the 9th November, 1675 C.E, the Qazis ordered that Bhai Dayal Dass be seated in a cauldron of boiling water... Before putting Bhai Dayal Dass in the cauldron of boiling water, the qazis said,
"There is still time. Embrace Islam and save yourself from pains otherwise you will face greater agony than your companion. You have seen how cruelly he was sawn."
Bhai Dayal Dass replied,
"You could not harass my companion. Did you notice, how calmly he was meditating on the word of his Guru when he was being sawn. Having made mockery of bodily pains, he had diffused into the Supreme Being. Hurry up and let my soul attain unity with the Lord."
On his reply in the negative, the executioners sat him in the cauldron of boiling water. He stayed on sitting in the water with an unwavering mind. His flesh separated from his bones and his soul merged into the Supreme Being. (Source: From the work of Sri.Santok Singh Jagdev.Published by SGPC) Established in His Divine resolve of Dharma Guru Tegh Bahadur tolerated all the tortures of Aurangazeb with smile. Guru Tegh Bahadur was threatened and given a choice to embrace Islam or death.
Guru chose Death rather than deviating from the path of Dharma. Guru sat in meditation and was beheaded by Aurangazeb. Aurangazeb killed Guru physically but Guru's words eternally power the hearts of every child of Hindustan. He had said in the face of death:
Bah Jinahn di pakariyeSar dije bah na chhoriyeTegh Bahadur bolyaDhar payae dharma na chhoriye
Give up your head,but forsake not those whom you have undertaken to protect.Says Tegh Bahadur, sacrifice your life,but relinquish not your Dharma